Osaka University researchers employed machine learning to remove the noise from experimental data without the need for "clean" examples. As a result, the team was better able to monitor the motion of spheres through tiny nanopores. This work may lead to advances in the fast detection of even very small concentrations of pathogens in patient samples.
3D-printable gels with improved and highly controlled properties can be created by merging micro- and nano-sized networks of the same materials harnessed from seaweed. The findings could have applications in biomedical materials - think of biological scaffolds for growing cells - and soft robotics.
A family of proteins that sense mechanical force--and enable our sense of touch and many other important bodily functions--also are essential for proper root growth in some plants, according to a study led by scientists at Scripps Research and Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
The work was sponsored by Russian Science Foundation; the project, headed by Professor Anatolii Mokshin, is titled "Theoretical, simulating and experimental research of physico-mechanical traits of amorphous-producing systems with heterogeneous local visco-elastic properties".
The demonstration that a tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler by cranking up the interactions between the particles provides both deep fundamental insight and a possible template for more efficient thermoelectric devices.
Astronomers commonly refer to massive stars as the chemical factories of the Universe. They generally end their lives in spectacular supernovae, events that forge many of the elements on the periodic table. How elemental nuclei mix within these enormous stars has a major impact on our understanding of their evolution prior to their explosion. It also represents the largest uncertainty for scientists studying their structure and evolution.
In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optics Letters, University of Stuttgart researchers detail how they used a type of 3D printing known as two-photon lithography to create lenses that combine refractive and diffractive surfaces.
New experiments conducted at Princeton University provide evidence for a decades-old theory that, in the quantum regime, an electron behaves as if it is made of two particles: one particle that carries its negative charge and the other that gives it a magnet-like property called spin. The team detected evidence for this theory in materials called quantum spin liquids.
SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on a special mechanism for the production of its proteins. A collaborative team led by a research group at ETH Zurich obtained molecular insights into this process and demonstrated that it can be inhibited by chemical compounds, thereby significantly reducing viral replication in infected cells.
Spatial-frequency-shift microscopy with evanescent wave illumination shows intriguing advantages, including a large field of view, high speed, and good modularity. However, a missing band in the spatial frequency domain hampers the spatial-frequency-shift superresolution microscopy from achieving resolution better than 3 folds of the Abbe diffraction limit. Recently researchers at Zhejiang University have proposed chip-compatible wide-field 3D nanoscopy through tunable spatial frequency shift effect, making the diffraction limit overcome in the linear optical imaging system.