B cells are the immune cells responsible for creating antibodies, and most produce antibodies in response to a pathogen or a vaccine. A small subset of B cells instead spontaneously make antibodies that perform vital housekeeping functions. Understanding how epigenetics spur these differences in such similar cells is an important fundamental question in immunology.
According to data from a cohort of adult and pediatric patients with antibody deficiencies, patients that often fail to make protective immune responses to infections and vaccinations showed robust T-cell activity and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. The new study, led by researchers at Children's National Hospital, is the first to demonstrate a robust T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients.
In a new study from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, researchers evaluated the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in pregnant and lactating women who received either the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, finding that both triggered immune responses.
Zebra finches also suffer from a suppressed immune function due to the chronic stress.
What The Viewpoint Says: Questions regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for patients with cancer are explored in this article.
Study shows that when exposed to a trigger, certain kinds of immune cells change their behavior in unexpected ways to produce the protein signals that cause lesions.
QUT air-quality expert Distinguished Professor Lidia Morawska is leading an international call for a "paradigm shift" in combating airborne pathogens such as COVID-19, demanding universal recognition that infections can be prevented by improving indoor ventilation systems.
Artificial food colorants can cause disease when the immune system has become dysregulated, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai researchers report. The study, published in Cell Metabolism in May, was the first to show this phenomenon.
A Z-RNA nanoswitch, less than 5 nanometer in length, flips from the right-handed A-RNA helix (?on") to the left-handed Z-RNA helix (?off") to selectively turn "off" immune responses against self RNAs, while allowing those against viruses to continue. Surprisingly, the Z-RNA nanoswitch sequence is encoded by "junk DNA". The Z-RNA nanoswitch is used by some cancers to silence anti-tumor immune responses. In other cases, a malfunction of the Z-RNA nanoswitch causes inflammatory disease.
We retrospectively reviewed clinical information of pediatric patients whose CSF was analyzed for NMDAR antibodies, and evaluated the 2016 diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. The criteria showed high sensitivity but low positive predictive value in our cohort. However, majority of the false positive cases were associated with a neuroimmunological disease. Collectively, physicians should start immunomodulatory therapy in the criteria-positive cases, but continue differential diagnosis, focusing especially on other forms of encephalitis.